Chronos or Kairos?

Life doesn’t move back and forth, nor does it go around in circles. Life goes on.

By Giulio Bajona

It’s 8 am, and I’m in the bathroom brushing my teeth, while looking anxiously at a 5-minute timer that I’ve set up on my phone. I’m almost done; I wipe my mouth on a towel and put the toothbrush back to its spot in the cupboard. Just then, the alarm goes off. ‘Not bad’, I tell myself, before I rush downstairs, maniacally wondering how much time I should give myself for breakfast.

In order to understand what is going on here, we need to take a step back and consider what changed in my life about three…

Why the Limits of Your Language Can Define the Limits of Your World.

Words can be tricky. Illustration By Illo for Ludwig

By Renata Schiavo

The philosopher from whom our start-up takes his name, Ludwig Wittgenstein, claimed that “the limits of my language mean the limits of my world”. To what extent was he right?

According to Ferdinand de Saussure, the father of modern linguistics, our thought would be an “amorphous and indistinct mass” without language. The words we used to speak, but also the way in which any language organizes concepts can be considered as the hidden force that brings order to our mind, helping us to clarify things, ideas and even feelings, by giving them a name.

My Love Triangle with English and Italian

Bruno Caruso, “Incantatore di insetti” (1985)

By Giulio Bajona

One of my earliest memories is sitting on a tourist bus during a family trip in the south of Italy. I was probably five. I remember it was scorching hot and the bus windows were open to allow more air in. Amidst all the sights, sounds, and colors around me, my attention focused on a group of tourists who were speaking a foreign language. It sounded so fascinating, and my not understanding a single word of what they were saying only added to the intrigue. So, with a big grin on my face, I started blurting out…

Three Tried and Tested Ways to Understand What Users Want

By Antonio Rotolo

The famous automotive industrialist and entrepreneur Henry Ford is credited with a saying that has become very popular:

“If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said faster horses.”

Ford Model T

Although there’s no evidence that Ford ever said these words, this line is still attributed to him as proof that innovation can be achieved without customer input.

Having said that, customers' input is great, and a deep understanding of users’ needs is the foundation for building a product that users love.

Customers generally know what they want, and if they don’t, they at least understand…

The Story of an Italian Startup That Decided to Democratize English

Ludwig’s Team

By Giulia Penni

If you are a non-native English speaker, you probably need to stop every two or three sentences to search for the right words or word combinations when you write something in English. Don’t worry, you’re not alone. Non-native English speakers struggle every day while writing emails, papers, and projects.

The majority of today’s communications take place in English, which is by far the most-used language on the internet. …

Meet the Subjunctive

Illustration by Ludwig

You may have never thought about it that way, but languages, like human beings, have ‘moods’. These are simply different ‘modalities’ (or ways) in which we talk about things. Most languages have at least three: we use the ‘indicative mood’ to make statements and describe facts; we turn to the ‘imperative mood’ to give orders; finally, if we want to express a hypothesis, a strong wish, or a request, we can use the ‘subjunctive mood’. In English, it’s easy to see the distinction between the indicative and the imperative, because these correspond to different forms of the verb. For example:


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